FullGenomes - Comprehensive DNA Sequencing

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Excavation of the Philistine cemetery at Ashkelon - Melissa Aja - Courtesy Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon

Excavation of the Philistine cemetery at Ashkelon


Far Forbears G-M201 Home


Whoever decides to research his pedigree will discover ancestors coming from a melting pot of peoples. Because genealogies are based on a family name inherited from the father, research centers on Y-DNA, the part of our DNA which only sons inherit from their father.

Many of us will find related families within the first five hundred years. As we go back further in time, we may find relatives in other parts of Europe, living with other family names. And when we go further back, more than two thousand years, we will probably find our roots on other continents. Asia? Africa?

DNA can provide a great deal of information. Of all the possibilities available, genealogists primarily use only the Y-DNA, that part which is passed down from father to son, as surnames are passed down. Anthropologists also use Y-DNA, but for them the autosomal and mitochondrial DNA, mt-DNA, is at least just as important - this is the DNA which is passed down through the mother.


Y-DNA haplogroups

The Y-DNA code A0000 is given to the Denisovans, and A000 to the Neanderthals. From them more than 100 SNPs are already known, all starting with an A letter.

Y-tree-ISOGG, Ray Banks

Y-Tree-ISOGG by Ray Banks. (1)


schedels noderne mens en Neanderthaler - Acient Origin

The skull of a homo sapiens and a Neanderthal. Museum of Natural History in Cleveland. (2)


Homo Sapiens comes from the Homo heidelbergensis, also known as Homo rhodesiensis, an species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that is extinct in the Middle Pleistocene - about 700,000 years ago.

Denisovans and Neanderthals split from Homo sapiens around 750,00 years ago and diverged from each other around 100.000 years later.

Reconstructie van Homo erectus uit Georgië, foto: George van der Ven

Reconstruction Homo erectus from Georgia (3)



A0000 - A8864 → A8983






Homo Sapiens Sapiens

The oldest common human ancestor has been given the code A00. His direct descendants are now living in Cameroon in Africa. The estimated modern human-Neandertal TMRCA is 387 ka (95% HPD 344 to 432 ka). The modern human TMRCA is estimated at 268.000 ybp (95% HPD 238 to 301 ka) (4a)
The oldest archaeologically found human fossils are found in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco. These are dated to 315,000 years ago.

All people in the world seem to descend from a woman that to alleged lived around 200.000 ybp in Africa, somewhat younger.

All human Y-DNA haplogroups have sprouted from the common ancestor of all humans. He lived in Africa and had haplogroup A00-AF4. He lived about 250,000 ybp


Y-DNA Haplogroep A00-AF6/L1284.
A00-AF3/, FGC27410/YP2150. L1284* is still present at six men in Cameroon. It is considered that the time to their most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) 250,000 ybp.
A0-T-L1085, formed 240,000 ybp.
A0-CTS2809/L991, Y9691/Z8921 formed 140,000 years ago.
A1-P305 formed about the same time as L991, 140.000 ybp and is now in Northwest Africa.
A1b-Y8278, P108, formed 135,00 ybp, TMRCA 130,000 ybp, from this came BT-M8968/PF207, M91.
A1b1a1-M14 exists in the click language speaking Khoisan populations.
A1b1b-M32, is mainly distributed among the Khoi-san and in East Africa. Some are now living in the Arabian Peninsula. They came there probably as slaves.
A1b1b2a-M51/Page42, potentially unique to the Khoe-San
A1b2 called BT-M91


Y-DNA Haplogroup BT-M8968/PF207, M91, stems from A1b-Y8278. From this come the Haplogroups B-M60 and haplogroup CT-CTS2711. They are the ancestors of all Eurasian people, formed 130,700 ybp, TMRCA 88,000 ybp.


Y-DNA Haplogroup B-M8720/V2144 originated in Africa, formed 88,000 ybp, TMRCA 84,200. Stems from AT. This man and his descendants remained in Africa. They live there now scattered in small concentrations among hunter-gatherers of Ethiopia and Sudan, and at the click language speakers.
B2a-M150 in Cameroon, East Africa and the Bantu in South Africa.
B2a1a-M109 comprise approximately 2.3% of African-Americans.
B2b-M112 is present among pygmies and the Khoisan in South Africa.


Y-DNA Haplogroup CT-M5608/PF258, comes from BT-M8968/PF207. formed 88,000 ybp, TMRCA 68,500 ybpDescendants of Haplogroup CT have been found in various prehistoric human fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA, including specimens associated with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (1/1; 100%), Neolithic Ganj Dareh Iran (1/2; 50%), Natufian (2/5; 40%), Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (2/7; ~29%), Alföld Linear Pottery (1/1 at two ALP archaeological sites; 100%), Linearbandkeramik (1/2 at Karsdorf LBK archaeological site; 50%) cultures, and some Upper Paleolithic Europeans (Cioclovina1, Kostenki12, Vestonice13). But whether these, or all of them, belong to paragroup CT* or to its branches, is as yet undetermined.
From CT-M168 came CF-P143 and DE-CTS10234. (5)


Y-DNA Haplogroup CF-M3711/CTS6376/PF2697 stems from CT-M168. Is formed 68,500 ybp, TMRCA 65,900 ybp From CF come the haplogroups C-M130 and F-M89. The clade's existence and distribution are inferred from the fact that haplogroups descended from CF include most human male lineages in Eurasia, Oceania and The Americas.


Y-DNA Haplogroup C-CTS1631, F2067, Y1785, formed 65900 ybp, TMRCA 48400 ybp stems from CF-M3711, arose shortly after the departure of the modern human from Africa. He travelled across the southern Arabian peninsula, through Pakistan and India, and on to Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Japan, Polynesia and Australia. Haplogroup C is found in ancient populations on every continent except Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males belonging to many peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania. The haplogroup is also found at moderate frequencies among certain indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.
C-CTS1631* is found in a 37,000 year old skeleton in Kostenki in Russia, today it is still present in India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and in aboriginal Australians (5% of all C).
C1-F3393/Z1426, formed 48400 ybp, TMRCA 47300 ybp in Japan and in Australian Aborigines.
C1a-CTS11043 is a generation in between.
C1a1-M8 Japan, China, Korea.
C1a1a1-CTS6678 or CTS11058 Japanese.
C1a1a1b-Z1356, Japanese.
C1a1a1b2-Z40544, Japanese.
C1a2-V20 Europe, Algeria (Berbers), Armenia, Czech Rep. (ancient DNA, abt 30,000 yrs ago), Spain (ancient DNA, 7800 yrs ago, in La Braña, Spain. These had a dark complexion and blue eyes.), Turkey (ancient DNA, abt 15.000 and 8300 yrs ago), Hungary (ancient DNA, abt 7000 yrs ago)
C1a2a2-Y11325/29329, Spanish, Polish.
C1a2b-Z38886, Northern Africa.

C1b1a1-M356 Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emeritates, locally in India, especially in Gujarat 9%, and in the Brahui of Pakistan.
C1b1a1~ Z16449
C1b1a1a- P92, K105,
C1b1a1a1- Z5895, K40,
C1b1a1a1a- K159
C1b1a1a1a1- K96,
C1b1a1a1a1a- K42,
C1b1a1a1a1a1- Z5896,
C1b1a1a1a1a1~ K225
C1b1a1a1a1a1a- K193
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1- Z12522
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a- K466,
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1- K470-
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1a- Z5898
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1b~ FGC22190.2/Y5076.2,
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1c~ Z31766,
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a2~ Z31758,
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1b~ Z31743,
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1c~ Z31748,
C1b1a1a1a1a1a1d~ Z31753,
C1b1a1a1a1a1b~ Z31733,
C1b1a1a1a1a2~ Z31730,
C1b1a1a1a1b~ Z31725,
C1b1a1a1a2~ Z39941,
C1b1a1a2~ Z39946,
C1b1a1b- Z5899, BY158801/Y152688,
C1b1a1b~ BY160616/Y125864, Y43116
C1b1a1b1- Z12338, BY160069,
C1b1a1b1~ BY158807/Z21351, BY159855
C1b1a1b1a- Z5900,
C1b1a1b1a1~ Z31708, Z31709,
C1b1a1b1a2~ MZ101/Z31715,
C1b1a1b1b~ BY160461/Y153979,
C1b1a1b2~ Z31778, Z31779,
C1b1a2- AM00847/AMM008/B65, Indonesia (Lebbos), Brunei (Murats), Philippines (Aetas).
C1b1a2a- B67, FGC14126.2,
C1b1a2a1~ B69, Z32790,
C1b1a2a2~ B70, Z32798,
C1b1a2b- AM00848/AMM009/F725,
C1b1a2b1- B465
C1b1a2b1a~ B71, Z32806,
C1b1a2b1a1~ B74
C1b1a2b1b~ B467, Z32216,
C1b1a2b1b1~ B468, Z32185,
C1b1a2b2~ B72, Z32802,
C1b1a3-Z16582 Saudi Arabia, Iraq.
C1b1b-B68 Brunei (Dusuns).
C1b2a~ Z31783,
C1b2b~ Z31788,
C1b3a-M38, S22946, Eastern Indonesia, particularly Papua New Guinea, on Sumba and the Northern Islands.
C1b3a1- M208, Melanesia, Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea.
C1b3a1a-P33 Pacific Islands, in Rapa Nui (Easter Island), 90% in Samoa and Tonga and Tahiti 2/3 third of the male population.
C1b3a1b~ PF1200
C1b3a1b1- P54
C1b3a1c-B460 Papua New Guinea (Koinambes)
C1b3a1c1~ B462, Z32395,
C1b3a1c2- B461, Z32397,
C1b3a1c2a~ B463
C1b3a1c2a~ B464, Z32402,
C1b3a1d-Z32295 Indonesia (Bajos)
C1b3a1d~ Z32295
C1b3a1d1- B459, FGC26771.2/YP3147.2,
C1b3a1d1a~ B75, Z32832,
C1b3a2~ F2642/S2169
C1b3a3-B76 Indonesia (Bajos)
C1b3b-M347 Australia (Aborigines)
C1b3b1- M210
C1b3b1~ CTS853,
C1b3b2~ Z40247,
C1b3b3~ Z40252,
C1b3b4~ Z40414,
C1b3c~ Z40423,

C2-M217/P44/ 1453 formed 48400 ybp, TMRCA 33900 ybp, probably in South or Central Asia; it is in 27% of the Chinese Han population and in Korea. Even in small rates of Tibetans. It spread to northern Siberia and spread through the Bering Strait to America where it is now found among American Indian tribes along the Venezuelan-Colombian border and in the rainforests of Ecuador. In Europe it occasionally, it probably came here with the Huns at the end of the Roman Empire.
C2a-L1373, L1373* in Ecuador (Bolivar)
C2a1a1a-P39, Z30536
C2a1a1a1-Z30568, Canada & U.S. (Amerindians)
C2a1a1a2a-F1756, China (Hezhens, Xibos, Hans), East Europe, Turkey, Russia (Altaians, Koryaks)
C2a1a1b1a2a1, FGC28857, Z44095, Ancient genome of the Chinese Emperor Emperor Wu of the Xianbei-led Northern Zhou dynasty, named Yuwen Yong (543–578 CE). (5a)
C2a1a2-M48, Western Kazakh Clans, TMRCA 600 yrs.
C2a1a2a-M86, Siberian Russia (Mongolians, Evenks, Buryats)
C2a1a2a2-F6379, Kalmyks and Oirat-speaking clans in Inner Asia, TMRCA ab. 1500 ybp.
C2a1a2b-B90 Siberian Russia (Koryaks, Evenks)
C2a1a3-CTS5559, F4002, M504 Afghanistan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, China (Aisin Gioros), China (Oroqens), Uzbekistan
C2a1a4-F992/Y12018/Z30601 India, Slovakia.

C2a1b-Z31698, autochtone in Texas, USA.

C2b-F1396/L1373, Mongolians, a Japanese.
C2b1a-F3918 Mongolians, and an American Indian.
C2b1a1a-P39 only North American Indian tribes.
C2b1a1b-F1756 or F3985, DYS448 has null value, Central Asian.
C2b1b-M48 Central Asians, some with a double DYS19 value..
C2b1b1b4~M93 Japanes
C2b1c-F4002 or M504, usually DYS388=14, Mongolians "Genghis Khan" group.
C2b1d-Z22424 Europeans.
C2b2-P48, in small numbers in Yakut-speaking Evens and Yukaghir in Siberia.
C2b2a-M86/M77 in 70% of the western Evens, 15% of the Yukaghirs, 12% of the Yakut-speaking Evens, 9% of the Tuvans and some Yakuts. Is there too in Altaian Cossacks, Todjines, Tuvinians, Yakuts, Buryats, Kalmucks and Evenks.
C2b2a1 has a number of men with a double DYS19 value, is found at Altaian Cossacks, Kalmucks, Tuvinians, Mongols and Todjis.
C2b2a1/DYS448=0 in Kazakhstan.
C2e-M546/Z1338 in Central and East Asia.
C3b2b1*-M401, the House of Aisin Gioro, this is the the imperial family of the last dynasty in Chinese history, the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). They originate from the Jurchen tribes in north-east China, from which also the Jin dynasty (1115 -1234) stems.


Y-DNA Haplogroup DE-CTS10234, stems together with his bother clade CF-P143 from CT-CTS2711, the age of haplogroup DE is generally estimated between 65,000 and 71,000 years. DE is distributed in several geographically distinct clusters. From DE come the haplogroups D-M174 and E-M96.



Y-DNA Haplogroup D-Z1605/CTS4030 stems from via DE-CTS10234, is formed 65200 ybp, TMRCA 46500 ybp, is now predominant in Central and Southeast Asia.
D1-M174 is in Tibet, about half of the population of Mongolia, and to a lesser degree in Central and Southeast Asia as well in 10% of the Americans.
D1a1a-M15 is in Tibet, Mongolië, Centraal en Zuidoost Azië.
D1a1b-P99, Kazakstan, Mongolia.
D1b-M55 is exclusively in Japan, where it arose between 12.000 and 20.000 years ago, and is now found in 35% of the population.
D1C1-P47 in Centraal Azië.

D-L1366 is only in the Philippines.


Y-DNA Haplogroup E-M96 comes from haplogroup DE-CTS10234. This is a brothergroop of D-M174. formed 65200 ybp, TMRCA 53200 ybp, spread over whole Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East He was one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of Africa His subgroup E1b1 has received the furthest branches and the largest distribution later in Africa and beyond.

Spresd of haplogroup E

E1a1-M44, has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%. 2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, 18.9 KY. in Alsace-Lorraine.
E1a1a-Z17699, Ashkenazim of Northeast Europe.
E1a1a1-Z17697, TMRCA 3.0 KY
E1a1a1a1-Z17696, Ashkenazi Jews of Northeast Europe
E1a1a2-Z36092, Lebanese Druze 3.0 KY
E1a1b-Z17467, became later in Africa and beyond the deepest branches and the largest distribution, England 3,3 KY
E1a1b1-Z20650, English, formed 3,1 ybp.
E1a1b2-M4507, English.
E1a1b3-Z31503, formed in England, TMRCA 550 ybp.
E1a1c-Z31497, Germans TMRCA 5.000 Ybp.
E1b1-P2 later spread within Africa and then travelled to Asia Minor and southern Europe.
E1b1a-L222.1 is still widely spread throughout Africa.
E1b1a2-M329, is in an ancient DNA sample from the highlands of Ethiopia 4524-4418 Cal BP.
E1b1b-M212 develops in Northwest Africa, through Asia Minor, along the Mediterranean Sea on South-Europe.
E1b1b1-M35.1 Clusters are now distributed in Western and South-eastern Europe, in Asia minor, in North and West Africa.
E1b1b1a1-M78, moved from Northwest Africa to the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa at the end of the Ice Age around 14,700 ybp, now African, European, and Middle Eastern.
E1b1b1a1a1-V12, TMRCA 10,000 ybp
E1b1b1a1a1b-V32, in Horn of Africa and among Cushitic-speaking herders further south, Upper Egyptian and East African, has a major part that retreated from the Sahara to Northwest and West Africa, and maybe even made it to Southern Europe in the Early Bronze Age.
E1b1b1a1a1b1-CTS3282, FGC14377, in the Upper Nile valley in Egypt and in East Africa. This is the part of E-V12 that fled the rapidly expanding Sahara Desert for the Nile valley, and it's these people that created the Upper Egyptian Naqada culture which was the beginning of Egyptian Civilization.
E1b1b1a1b1-L618, in the Neolithic Balkans.
E1b1b1a1b1a-V13, in the Neolithic Balkans
E1b1b1a1a1c-CTS693, TMRCA 8900 ybp, in very West African just south of the Sahara.
E1b1b1a1a1c1a-CTS1239, Y2877, TMRCA 6100 ybp, it becomes European, also Jewish both Ashkenazim and Sephardim, Sardinians and other Europeans as Irish probably descendants of legionnaires and colonists from Iberia and Italy.
E1b1b1a1a2-PF2272/V65, historical Berbers. is old enough to be the Proto-Berbers (Meshwesh) of the Egyptian Third Intermediate Period starting around 1070 BCE.
E1b1b1a1b2-V22 seems to have moved to the Nile Valley and Delta after the drying out of the Sahara starting around 5900 ybp. They were pushed to the margins of the Sahara, areas like North Africa and the Horn of Africa where it still rained. This new high concentration of people produced one the of the world's major civilizations. It's concentrated in Lower Egypt, and also among Arabic-speaking Sudanese and Nubians. It seems that E-V22 first proliferated in Egypt, and then spread to Sudan much more recent, perhaps with the Egyptians. is also found among Chadic speakers and the Fulani, nomadic pastoralists who migrate all across the Sahel, from Senegal to Sudan. Is also found in the Near East, and likely started to migrate to the Levant from the Nile Valley during the Chalcolithic.
E1b1b1b1a-M81/PF2554, lack of population structure within the E-M183 branch, which could be explained by the recent and rapid expansion of this haplogroup. In spite of a reduction in STR heterozygosity towards the West, which would point to an origin in the Near East, ancient DNA evidence together with our TMRCA estimates point to a local origin of E-M183 in NW Africa. (Sole-Morata et al, Whole Y-Chromosome Sequences Reveal an Extremely Recent Origin of the Most Common North African Paternal Lineage E-M183 (M81), Nature-Scientific Reports, 7, #15941, 2017.)
E1b1b1b2-PF1961, 1 individual from Peqi'in Cave, Israel, about 6,600 ybp.


Y-DNA Haplogroup F-M89 stems from CF-P143, is formed 50,000 to 56,000 ybp most likely in the Indian Subcontinent, or somewhere close to it. He became the ancestor of all the Y-DNA haplogroups from G through T. His offspring now includes 90% of the world's population.
The vast majority of individual males with F-M89 fall into its direct descendant Haplogroup GHIJK - F1329/M3658/PF2622. But he has the following subclades.
F-M89* at some Iranians. In one third of the archaeological records about 8000 years old in the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe (1/3 was G2a2b and 10% G2a), and in 7,000 years old archaeological DNA in Derenburg, Germany.
F1-P91, occasionally found in India
F2-Y27277 in the the Tibeto-Burman Lahu people of Yunnan China, Vietnam, Singapore, and an Indonesian.
F2a-M427 occasionally found in India
F3-M481 occasionally found in India


Y-DNA Haplogroup GHIJK-F1329, stems from F-M89, formed 65900 ybp, TMRCA 48800 ybp, its subclades comprise the vast majority of the world's male population with the haplogroups G, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S and T.


Y-DNA Haplogroup G-M201, stems from GHIJK-F1329, is formed in west Asia about 50,000 ybp and split in two subgroups G1 and G2 about 25,000 ybp. At present G is a small haplogroup in Europe with an occurrence from 3% to 7%, somewhat more at places in the Alps, and increasing to 10% on the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
Haplogroup G seems to have had a slow start, evolving somewhere in West Asia in isolation for tens of thousands of years, G did not participate in the earlier colonization of Eurasia. Now about 2,5 % of the World population has this haplogroup.
G1 and G2 entered Europe in Neolithic times in several waves, together with J1 and/or J2. It has subsequently declined in number, and was minimized upon the arrival in Europe of the corded ware culture in the Iron Age. It is often found in European archaeological DNA.

G1-M342 the oldest branch is formed in west Asia 25600 ybp TMRCA 18400 ybp.
G1a-CTS11562, formed 18400 ybp, TMRCA 14400 ybp
G1a1-BY1124, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 13300 ybp, Russians, Saudis.
G1a1a-Z3353, formed 13300 ybp, TMRCA 13200 yb, Indians, Yemens, Slovakians.
G1a1a1-L1324, formed 13200 ybp, TMRCA 4800 ybp, Ashkenazi Jews, Bulgarians, Kazakhs, Mongols, Kuwaitis, Italians.
G1a1b-GG313, formed 13300 ybp, TMRCA 9600 ybp, Saudis.
G1a1b1-GG167, formed 9600 ybp, TMRCA 8500 ybp, Saudis.
G1a1b1a-GG162, GG169, formed 8500 ybp, TMRCA 5800 ybp, Brazil, Iran.
G1a1b1a1-GG157, GG164, formed 6800 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp, Russians
G1a1b2-GG272, formed 9600 ybp, TMRCA 6900 ybp, Quwaitis, Saudis, Arabs.
G1a1b2a-GG270, GG285, Y159025, formed 6900 ybp, TMRCA 6900 ybp
G1a1b2a1-GG265, formed 6900 ybp, TMRCA 2900 ybp, Armenians Saudis
G1a1b2a1a-GG266, formed 2900 ybp, TMRCA 1200 ybp, Armenians
G1a1b2a1b-Y134359, formed 2900 ybp, TMRCA 1200 ybp
G1a2-F2885, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 8100 ybp
G1a2a-BY21302, Z45019, formed 8100 ybp, TMRCA 7900 ybp, UK.
G1b-L830, formed 18400 ybp, TMRCA 8400 ybp,
G1b1-Z17874, formed 8400 ybp, TMRCA 2900 ybp
G1b1a-Z18606, Belarus
G1b1b-Z30744, Qatar,
G1b2~BY165821, formed 18600 ybp,

G2-P287/PF3140, formed 25,600 ybp, TMRCA 20,800 ybp probably in the fertile crescent.

G2a-P15/PF3112, ormed 20800 ybp, TMRCA 18000 ybp and started expanding after the Ice Ages, 14,500 ybp. Of the European archaelogical DNA 20% has these original clade; together with his subgroups they make 60% of the Earliest Neolithic European DNA.

G2a1-FGC7535, Z6552 (former L293), formed 18000 ybp, TMRCA 18000 ybp its subgroups account for 50% to 70 % of the men in the Middle-Caucasus, and is also found among small groups of East Europeans, mostly Ashkenazic Jews and Lebanese Maronite Christians.
G2a1a-FGC595, Z6553, formed 15000 ybp, TMRCA 9500 yb (herein or in subgroups) Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Bashkirs, Kumyks, Karachays, Tatars, some among Hungarians, Czechs, and Bulgarians and Kalash and Brahui.
G2a1a1-FGC693, Z6653, formed 9500 ybp, TMRCA 6700 ybp, Lebanon, 12% of the people in the North and Northwest of Georgia with a TMRCA of 7,500 BP, is of Neolithic origin in the Caucasus. spread probably with the Christian Ossetians eastward to China and Mongolia.
G2a1a1a-FGC715, FGC6679, formed 6700 ybp, TMRCA 6000 ybp
G2a1a1a1-Z6635, Z6692, formed 6000 ybp, TMRCA 6000 yb
G2a1a1a1a1a-FGC766, Z8014,
G2a1a1a1a1a1-FGC750, FGC7958, formed 6000 ybp, TMRCA 4300 yb
G2a1a1a1a1a1a-Z7940, FGC724, formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 4300 ybp
G2a1a1a1a1a1a2-FGC719, formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 750 ybp, Russian.
G2a1a1a1a1a1b-Z31459, Y29585, formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp, Georgians, with whom Dzhugashvili (Джугашвили), better known as Stalin (Сталин).
G2a1a1a2-FGC1159, FGC1160, formed 6000 ybp, TMRCA 5000 ybp, Azerbayan.
G2a1a2-Z17774, Z17775, formed 9500 ybp, TMRCA 6100 ybp, Italians, Pakistani
G2a1a3-Z31464, Z35444, formed 9500 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp, Netherlands, Germans.

G2a2-L1259-CTS4367. is the ancestor of 90% of the European G. This group split into two, with G2a2a accounting for 10% of the European G, and G2a2b accounting for 80% of the European G.

G2a2a-PF3147+ accounts for 5% of the European G and is found along the Danube, Rhine, Meuse and Thames, in Greece and Corsica and Sardinia. Furthermore, in South and Southwest Asia in Turkey Kurds and Armenians in Iran at Armenians in India.
G2a2a1-PF3177+ is the father group of G2a2a1b1-L166/L167, a cluster found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia as well as in the 5000-year-old ice mummy, Ötzi, in the Alps and in some round the North Sea. It also occurs in south and southwest Asia.

G2a2b-L30/L32/U8/S126 is the major European trunk accounting for 80% of the G.
G2a2b1-M406/PF3285. originated in Turkey and probably entered Italy about 8000 years ago. This is the dominating G clade of southern Europe. 50% of the G men in Iraq, Turkey, Greece and the Balearic Islands have this clade, 25% in Georgia (G2a1a is almost 8%), 20% in Italy, 15% in Spain and the Netherlands, 8% in Switzerland, 6% in Iran, and 4% in Poland and Great Britain.
G2a2b2-L141.1+ probably originated in the Caucasus. Most of the northern Europeans belong to this clade. It is also found in Spain and northern Africa, and among the Brahmins in India.
G2a2b2a-P303/S135. occurs at high rates in the northern Caucasus region among the Circassians, Avars and Ingush, and in the majority of G men in Russia and Europe and on the island of Ibiza. It is found at lower rates south of the Caucasus, in Iran and the Middle East, as well as among Brahmins in India and with a certain haplotype in Ashkenazic Jews.
G2a2b2a1-L140/S316. This G clade is dominant in northern and Central Europe, accounting for almost 80% of the G men. This group is estimated to be about 15.000 years old. In some countries it accounts for 7% of the population, but the average is about 3%. It is usually divided into three major clades. It occurs in only small amounts outside the borders of the former Roman Empire. There is an Ashkenazic cluster in north-western Europe.

G2b-M3115 The oldest archaeologically find is in the Wezmeh Cave in the Zagros Mountains, Iran. He lived 9.250 ybp.
G2b1-M377 is found in most G men in Afghanistan. It is also found among Maronite Christians in Turkey, incidentally in Iran, and among Ashkenazic Jews in western Europe.

The first farmers in Europe had G2a and G2a2b

Archaeologically found Y-DNA of the first settlers in Europe appeared to be G2a-P15 and G2a2b-L30. Before this time lived here hunter-gatherers who had C and I. Their first burial grounds are found at Derenburg in Sachsen-Anhalt(Germany). It is dated between 7.000 and 7,500 years ago.
Y-DNA SNP's from three men could be determined: two men had Haplogroup F and one G2a2b2. From nearly the same period are the archaeological finds in Starvečo in North-West Hungary and finds of the Linear Band culture in the Pannonian Basin in Central Hungary.
These are the earliest settlements of the Neolithic culture in Europe. From nine men in Starvečo the Y-DNA haplogroup could be determined exactly, and of 8 less or more complete. Haplogroup F is found in 23,5%, G2a in 18% in whom almost certainly G2a2a-PF3147, including G-L91 based on haplotypes, and G2a2b-S126 in 41%. Total G is nearly 60%. The others had I1a1-P37,2. (6)

Around 7000 years ago arrive this first in The Netherlands. They settle on the mountain slopes of the South Limburg Meuse Valley, as at Caberg a neighbourhood on the edge of the plateau west of Maastricht. Here is the fertile loess soil. They find blocks in the underground with flint for the manufacture of tools. Their pottery jars have the Linear Pottery style. The culture is flourishing for 500 years and then disappears without a trace. To what extent this culture disappeared together the population has not yet been demonstrated. There is difference of opinion whether the bringers of the new culture have absorbed or expelled the resident population. See also Maastricht Au-DNA .


Impression of a LBK hamlet at Caberg a neighbourhood on the edge of the plateau
west of Maastricht, the Netherlands. (7)


Y-DNA Haplogroup HIJK-F929, from this the haplogroups H-M69, IJ-FGC1665 and K-M9.


Y-DNA Haplogroup H-M69 arose out HIJK - F929/M578, most probably in India, 30.000 to 40.000 years ago. Today almost all carriers live in India. The European gypsies, called also the Roma or Sinti people, have this haplogroup ‑ they originally came from India.
H-M69, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Knia (From India?).
H1-M52, Kerala, India
H1a-M82, Romani, Sinti in Europe from India.
H1a1-M197 Iraq.
H1a1a2-L683, Kashmir

H2-P96 Afghanistan, (till now) all have DYS393=14.
A number of eight archaeological finds, dated about 5200 BCE found in Stuttgart-Mühlhausen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. (7a)


Y-DNA Haplogroup IJK-L15 arose out HIJK - F929/M578, from this the haplogroups IJ-FGC1665 and K-M9.


Y-DNA Haplogroup IJ-FGC1665, derived populations account for a significant proportion of the pre-modern populations of Europe (especially Scandinavia and the Balkans), Anatolia, the Middle East (especially Arabia, The Caucasus, Levant and Mesopotamia) and coastal North Africa. As a result of mass migrations during the modern era, they are now also significant in the Americas and Australasia.


Y-DNA Haplogroup I-M170 formed 43.000 ybp is an European group, I1* is found in archaeological European finds. I* has been found in ancient Gravettian culture samples from Krems-Wachberg Austria dated to 31,000 cal BP. In the site of Balma Guilanyà in the Pyrenees, dated around 13,100 ybp (± 330y), nowadays it is present in about a fifth of the population and barely outside Europe. This suggests an origine in Europe, before the last glacial maximum.
About 28.000 years ago it divided into two major subgroups I1 and I2:
I1-M253 has its highest rates in northwest Europe, Great Britain, Scandinavia and Iceland, and was presumably spread further by Vikings, Angles and Saxons.
I1a1-M227 is concentrated in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, and three to five thousand years old. It is also seen in Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia, Ukraine, Switzerland, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Croatia, and Lebanon

I2-M438 is found in Armenia, Georgia and Turkey.
I2a-L460 probably originated in southern Europe during the Ice Age.
I2a1-P37.2 is found in European hunter-gatherers and nowadays in the Balkans and Sardinia.
I2a1a-M26 is found on Sardinia.
I2a1b-L178/CYS176 is found in Mesolithic Sweden.
I2a2-M436 has its highest rates along the Northwest coast of Europe.
I2a2a-M223 is found in Great Britain and Northwest Europe.
I2a2a1-M284 is found exclusively in Great Britain, where it arose several thousand years ago.

Y-DNA Haplogroup I11

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1a

Y-DNA Haplogroup Ib1

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1b

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1c

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1c


Y-DNA Haplogroup J-P209 originated in Asia Minor and from there went to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. Most come for J in the Middle East. The presence gradually decreases in the direction of Northwest Europe, where coastal residents have 3%. The distribution took place both in the Neolithic as well as by subsequent periodic waves of immigration.

J1-L255/M267/PF4646 branches could have originated in the Levant and is now found in other parts of Asia Minor and North Africa, having spread along the southern Mediterranean and into Ethiopia.

J2-L228/M172/S321 lines arose in the region along the Fertile Crescent, with its primary distribution probably occurring during the Neolithic period with the spread of agriculture in the Mediterranean region. It is not yet clear when J2 arrived in Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.
There is a decreasing gradient of occurrence from the Middle East to northwest Europe, where it occurs in about 3% of the population. This haplogroup entered Europe during the Neolithic expansion as well as during periodic immigrations ‑ each region has its own mixture.
A significant percentage of Jews belong to J, but Jews make up only a small percentage of the European J. The Cohen Modal Haplotype consists of six specific marker values, seen in both J1 and J2, but most often in J1.
J2a1 is found in an archaeological rest in Hungary from the Bronze Age.

Y-DNA Haplogroup J1

Y-DNA Haplogroup J1

Y-DNA Haplogroup J2

Y-DNA Haplogroup J2


Y-DNA Haplogroup K-M9 is an old line which arose about 50.000 years ago, probably in South Asia or West Asia. There are two branches: the first branch split into K1 through K4, which are found in low frequencies in Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean. From the second branch the haplogroups L to T sprouted.
K1-M9* Confirmed examples are most common amongst some populations in Islands of South East Asia and Melanesia.
K1 or LT-L298/P326.
K2-M526 is found in Australia.
K2a-M2308, an archaeological find of a 45,000 year-old modern human from Ust'Ishim in Western Siberia.
K2a1-M2313 includes a majority of males now living in all parts of East Asia, Northern Eurasia and South East Asia.
K2a1-M2313* in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to South Asia and South East Asia respectively: a Telugu from India and an ethnic Malay from Singapore.
K2a1a-Y28299, has been found in three living individuals from India.
K2b-M1221/P331/PF5911, thought to be less than 3,000 years younger than K, and less than 10,000 years younger than F, meaning it probably is around 50,000 years old.
K2b2-P295 is called P1 had a relatively rapid westward expansion and is the the immediate ancestor of both Haplogroups Q and R.


Y-DNA Haplogroup LT-L298/P326, PF5535 (former K1) divides into: L-M20 and T-M184.


Y-DNA Haplogroup L-M20 (Former K1a) divides into:
L1a in India, South Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
L1b L1b1 and L1b1a in low rates in The Middle East and Europe.
L1c in North Pakistan, North India and West-Central Asia.


Y-DNA Haplogroup M-P256 is found only in Papua, New Guinea, where it occurs in about 2/3 of the population.


Y-DNA Haplogroup N-M231 is distributed from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. The earliest finding of N in Europe comes from Iron Age Hungary, but is here virtually absent today.
The more southerly distributed sub-clade N4 emerged before N2a1 and N3, found mostly in the north, but the latter two display more elaborate branching patterns, indicative of regional contrasts in recent expansions.
In particular, a number of prominent and well-defined clades with common N3a3 ancestry occur in regionally dissimilar northern Eurasian populations, indicating almost simultaneous regional diversification and expansion within the last 5,000 years. This patrilineal genetic affinity is decoupled from the associated higher degree of language diversity. (8)
N1-M128, unsampled.
N1c1-L150, L1025, M2783, the Rurik dynasty of Kiev with DYS390=23, Vikings and founders of the Russian empire and six Polish - Lithuanian noble families (one princely) each in a different clade with 3 to 4 private SNP's. (9)
N2a-P43 formed 18.000 ybp, TMRCA 9.000 ybp.
N2a1-B525 Arab, Turk, Afghan;
N2a1-B478 Mongolian, Tuvinians, Nemets, Even, Yakut. Evenk;
N2a1-L1419. Mari, Vepsa, Udmurt, Khant.
N2a2-B520 Han, Vietnamese, Japanese.
N3-M46 old around 18.0 kya.
N3a-L708, the separation of this subgroup occurred round 7.0 kya ago.
N3a1-B211 Udmurts, Maris.
N3a2-M2118 old around 5 kya. Jakuts, Even, Han, Lebanese.
N3a3-VL29 Even, Estonians, Latvians, Central Russian, North Russian, Saamis.
N3a4-Z1936 Bashkirs, Tafars, Karelian, Vepsa, Kuban Cossack, Estonian.
N3a5-F4205 Turk, Cossackh, Buryats, Mongolians, Chukchis, Inuit.
N3a6-B479 Nanais
N3b-B187 Tuvinian, Altaian, Shors, Khakasses.
N3c-B496 Japanese, old around 13.0 kya.
N4-F2930 Han, Japanese.
N5-B482 mixed.


Y-DNA Haplogroup O-M175 is China's haplogroup, probably originating in southern China and from there spreading throughout China and to Taiwan, Indonesia and the Pacific islands.
O* is found in an 3000 years old archaeological sample of a Han Chinese.
O1 occurs mostly in Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and South China.
O2a occurs in these same areas and is found in an 3000 years old archaeological sample of a Han Chinese.
O2b has its highest frequencies among the populations of Japan and Korea.
O3 is the dominant subgroup of Middle and North China.
O3a is found in an 3000 years old archaeological sample of a Han Chinese


Y-DNA Haplogroup P-P295, M1254, sprung from K about 45.000 years ago in Central Asia and is now found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and South Siberia. From it arose haplogroups Q and R, the dominant haplogroups of Europe and now also of America.
P1-M45, PF5962 had a relatively rapid westward expansion and is the the immediate ancestor of both Haplogroups Q-M242 and R-M207, whose descendants now make up the most frequent haplogroups in Europe, the Americas, and Central Asia and South Asia.
P* has highest rates among members of the Aeta people of Luzon in the Philippines.
P1-PF5845,P5867 likely originated in East Asia or Southeast Asia, P1* in two individuals in an archaeological site from the Upper Paleolithic, dated circa 31,630 cal ybp, from a Yana river in Sakha, Russia. Is now most common among individuals in Eastern Siberia and Central Asia.
From this came Q-M242 and R-M207.
P2b1-BY49600, Philippines.


Y-DNA Haplogroup Q-M242 comes from P1-M45, arose in Central Asia around 20,000 ybp and spread via the Altai-Baikal region of northern Eurasia to China and went about 16,000 ybp along the Bering strait to North America and South America. It is still found in its region of origin as well as among some Europeans.
Q1-L232/S432, has numerous subclades among modern populations.
Q1a-F1096 is found almost only in Han Chinese populations, although in low frequencies, but also in an 3000 years old archaeologicasample of a Han Chinese in North West China.
Q1a1a-M120, archaeological find (M15-2) site of Shirenzigou at Xinjiang, northwestern China, dated between 200 and 100 BCE and located east of the Tianshan Mountains. (10)
Q1a2-M25 in Turkey
Q1a2a1a1-L341 is found in the Hunnu (Xiongnu) people a great people in the North of China, by the Europeans they are called Huns. (11)
Q1a2a1a2-L804, In archaeological finds on the Loess Plateau of Hengbey dated 3000 ybp, half of the men had haplogroup Q, particularly the social upper and middle class. The with them buried slaves all had haplogroup O2 and O3. (12)
Q1a2a2b1~F4537/Y18048, F5400/Y18090, archaeological find (X3) site of Shirenzigou at Xinjiang, northwestern China, dated between 200 and 100 BCE and located east of the Tianshan Mountains. (13)
Q1a3a1-M3 is exclusive for the old autochthones peoples of the Americas.
Q1b-M346, with many subgroups in Western Asia, Turkey and Europe.
Q1b1a-L54, came in rather recent periods from the Altai to Siberia in the Yenisi basin and went to North America via the Bering street. Is now at both sides.
Q1b1a1a-M3, an archaeological find of the Clovis culture belongs to this clade. It is frequent in the Chukotka Peninsula in Siberia and the Americas.
Q1b2b-F1161. (14)

Q2a1-L214, M378 Western and Eastern Asia and Jews.
Q2a1a-L245, Jews.

Q2a1a2-YP745 in North Africa, Europe, and West Asia, dates back to the second half of 3rd millennium BCE and earlier.
Q2a1a1a1-Y2200 in Europe, Central Asia: expanded not later than 2nd millennium BCE.
Q2b-L68 is in Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India, formed there no later than the end of 3rd millennium BP.


Y-DNA Haplogroup R-M207/Y482 comes from P1-M45 and is formed about 28.000 ybp. ago in Central Asia. It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations. Some descendant subclades have been found since pre-history in Europe, Central Asia and South Asia.
R-M207* is found in southern Siberia in bone fragments of a four year old boy in a grave in Mal'ta near the Angara river that flows into Lake Baikal, dated at 24,000 years old and in the remains of a man found not far away from there in Afontova Gora, dated 17,000 ybp his years old. There was already a split immediately in R1-M173 and R2-M479.

R1-M173/Y465, has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history. It has many branches, it has two major subgroups: R1a-L146/M420 and R1b-M343/PF6090.

R1a-L146/M420/PF6229, , formed 22.800 ybp, TMRCA 18.200 ybp The cradle is very likely in the Eurasian steppe. Now it is most common in Eurasia, from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
R1a1a1-M417 arose in the Eurasian steppe. Diversification occurred about 5,800 YBP. This suggests the possibility that R1a lineages accompanied demic expansions initiated during the Copper, Bronze, and Iron ages, partially replacing previous Y-chromosome strata, an interpretation consistent with albeit limited ancient DNA evidence. Is linked to the Uralic speakers and the spread of the Corded Ware culture l
R1a1a1a-Z282 in North and West Russia.
R1a1a1a1-Z284 in Southern Norway.
R1a1a1b-M458 in East Germany and Poland.
R1a1a1c-M558 in Russia.
R1a1a2-Z93 East Kazakhstan and West Mongolia. 98% of the R1a samples of the Central and South Asian lineages belong nowadays to this clade. (15)
R1a1b2a-Z2125 Uzbekistan.
R1a1b2a2-M780 in North India.

R1b-M343/PF6242, formed 22.800 ybp, TMRCA 20.400 ybp,
R1b* and the oldest forms of R1b are found dispersed at very low frequencies from Western Europe to India, a vast region where could have roamed the nomadic R1b hunter-gatherers during the Ice Age. The two oldest archaeological sites showing signs of cattle domestication are the villages of Çayönü Tepesi in south-eastern Turkey and Dja'de el-Mughara in northern Iraq, two sites only 250 km away from each others. This is presumably the area from which R1b lineages started expanding, or in other words, were the "original homeland" of R1b.
It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (e.g. the Bashkir minority) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon). The clade is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa and Central Asia. R1b also reaches high frequencies in the Americas and Australasia, due largely to immigration from Western Europe.
R1b1-L754, formed 20.400 ybp, TMRCA 17.100 ybp, R-L754* is present in southwest Asia and Africa where the Chadic languages are spoken.
R1b1a-L388, L389, formed 17.100 ybp, TMRCA 15.600 ybp .
R1b1a1-P297, formed 15.600 ybp, TMRCA 13.300 ybp is found throughout the whole of Eurasia.
R1b1a1a-M73, formed 13.300 ybp, is found in Asia, and to some degree throughout Europe.

R1b1a1b-M269, formed 13.300 ybp, TMRCA 6.400 ybp., is linked with the expansion of Indo-European languages from the steppe.
R1b1a1b1-L23, formed 6.400 ybp, TMRCA 6.100 ybp., associated with Yamna migrants, and thus also subsequently with the expansion of East Bell Beakers as North-West Indo-European-speakers in Europe,
R1b1a1b1a-L51, formed 6.100 ybp, TMRCA 5.700 ybp.
R1b1a1b1a1-l52, P310, formed 5700 ybp, TMRCA 5100 ybp, in France.
R1b1a1b1a1a-L151, formed 5500 ybp, TMRCA 4800 ybp, Czechia.
R1b1a1b1a1a1-M405/U106, formed 4.800 ybp, TMRCA 4.700 ybp, U106* in Poland, Sweden, Spain and Scotland.
R1b1a1b1a1a1c-S263/Z381, formed 4.700 ybp, TMRCA 4.700 ybp, R-Z381* is the clade of the Frankish Robertingians, later named Capetians, finally Bourbon, the Royal House of France, this is found in three branches of this house, with a genetically TMRCA deep in the Middle Ages corresponding the genealogy. (16)
R1b1a1b1a1a1c subclades can be found throughout Europe.
R1b1a1b1a1a1c1-S264, formed 4700 ybp, TMRCA 4200 ybp
R1b1a1b1a1a1c1a-S497, formed 4200 ybp, TMRCA 4200 ybp, the House Sachsen Coburg, Kings of England, Belgium, Portugal and Bulgaria.
R1b1a1b1a1a2-P312, formed 4800 ybp, TMRCA 4500 ybp, people in Whole Europe, in the Basque Country more than 80%. Archaelogical find in Asperg 'Gräfenbuehl (Dld) in a rich elite grave, Hallstatt Culture. This was a considerably tall individual, but with stomatitis; maxillary sinusitis; cribra orbitalia; overload of the right humerus dated ca 2.500 ybp.
R1b1a1b1a1a2b1d1-FGC22538, Counts of Holland and Zeeland (including a king of the Holy Roman Empire (1248 - 1256), and the counts of Bentheim (16a).
R1b1a1b1a1a2c-S461, formed 4500 ybp, TMRCA 4500 ybp
R1b1a1b1a1a2c1-L21, formed 4500 ybp, TMRCA 4200 ybp, the House Stuart, kings of England. (17)
R1b1a1b1a1a3-S1194, formed 4800 ybp, TMRCA 4800 ybp.

R1b1b-PF6279/V88 In the Middle East and Africa in speakers of the Chadic languages.
R1b2-PH155, archaeological find (M012) archéological site of Shirenzigou at Xinjiang, northwestern China, dated between 200 and 100 BCE and located east of the Tianshan Mountains. (18)
R1b2b-PH200, archaeological find (M15-1) archéological site of Shirenzigou at Xinjiang, northwestern China, dated between 200 and 100 BCE and located east of the Tianshan Mountains. (19)

R2-M479, formed 28.200 ybp, TMRCA 16.300 ybp, is found in Asia on the Indian subcontinent and in central Asia. Deep-rooted examples have also been found among Portuguese, Spanish, Tatar (Bashkortostan, Russia), and Ossetian (Caucasus) populations. R2 is present at low levels in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia and Europe.

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b


Y-DNA Haplogroup S-M230 is the haplogroup of half of the population of the highlands of Papua, New Guinea. It is also found in low concentrations on neighbouring islands.


Y-DNA Haplogroup T-M184 is an immediate descendant of the haplogroup LT, whose parent clade is the haplogroup K. The clade arose 40,000 ybp. He is found at its highest frequencies among some populations in East Africa and East India. Is at frequencies of greater than 30% in Somalis of Djibouti, in Madagascar, Bauri, and Yerukula of East India, Argyns from Kazakhstan and rural Sciaccensis from Sicily.
T-M184*, Armenia and Northwest Europe.
T1-M193, Syria Macedonia and Berbers of Morocco.
T1a-M70, Iran, and in early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7,200-7,000 ybp.
T1a1-l162, Northern Anatolia, Greece, at Ibiza and Germany.
T1a1a-L208, 6 individuals from Peqi'in Cave, Israel, about 6,200 ybp, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran, Arabian Peninsula, Upper Egypt and Horn of Africa. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
T1a1a1-P77, Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
T1a1a1b2-CTS22214 , 2 individuals from Peqi'in Cave, Israel, 6,200 ybp..
T1a1a2-P321, Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
T1a1a2a-P317, Syria and Italian Jews.
T1a2-L131, Northern Europe, eastern Europe, south eastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
T1a2a-P322 Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
T1a2b-L446, Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
T1a3-L1255, Kuwait.
T1a3a1a-FGC30962/Y12841, Kuwait
T1a3b1-Y13279, Iraqis.

Y-DNA Map Haplogroup T

Y-DNA Haplogroup T


Two shapes of the Homines Tree


Homines tree (20)

Mayukh Mondal, HumanTree

Genetic Tree of the hominides. (21)


Hypothetical Spread of Y-DNA in Europe during Pre-Roman Times
Hypothetical Spread of Y-DNA in Europe during Pre-Roman Times


World Map of Y-DNA Haplogroups

Hover your mouse over the map to see a magnification of Western Europe. (22)

Please note that peoples do exist in which a single haplogroup decisively dominates, such as the native Americans or Bantu farmers, but most human groups show a mixture of various lineages in differing frequencies.

For example, the wide distribution of haplogroup G ‑ which occurs throughout western Eurasia, but is dominant only in the Caucasus and in some populations of the Near East ‑ could not be deduced from this map.

The labelling of R1 as "NE Amerindian" is peculiar, given the likely introduction of this lineage with European colonists, but in any case this only underscores the complexities of the present-day distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups.


Mt-DNA  Haplogroups

Mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) is a tiny portion of the genome - only approximately 1/200,000th of it - which is passed down along the maternal line from mother to children and along the daughters to the grandchildren.

The spread of mt-DNA haplogroups from Africa (Jean Manco)

The spread of mt-DNA haplogroups - Jean Manco

As a result of the sequencing of the complete Y-chromosomes of 69 males from nine populations and applying equivalent methodologies to the Y-chromosome and the mitochondrial genome the time to the most common Ancestor of the mitochondrial genome mt-TMRCA is estimated to be at 99.000 to 148.000 years. (23)


Mt-Haplogroup L0 is the clade of the woman who lived about 125.000 years ago in south or east Africa. All mitochondrial DNA lineages of humankind today are her descendants.
L0d is represented by click speaking forager peoples of Southern Africa, defined as Khoisan, living at the semi-desert regions of Namibia and Botswana.
L0d2c is found in an 2,330 year old male skeleton of a pre-pastoral Southern African marine forager. This clade only survived in sister clades.
L1 is the first subgroup, spread throughout the whole of Africa.
L2 and L3 appeared about 70.000 years ago. After a gradual and sustained population decline, a rapid population growth occurred in which L2 and L3 took the place of the L0 and L1 women. These latter have remained only among the Khoisan (Bushmen) and Bayaka (Western Pygmies).
L3 arose in North East Africa. From this sprang the mt-Haplogroups M and N which have spread throughout Eurasia.

The women in the groups that arrived in Eurasia sixty thousand years ago had the haplogroups M and N.


Mt-Haplogroup M arose about 60 to 80,000 years ago, probably in East Africa, but possibly also in Arabia and spread together with N over Eurasia. In Europe, M disappeared during the last glacial maximum and was replaced by subclades of N.


From M arose the subgroups C, Z, D, E, G and Q.


Mt-Haplogroup N arose also about 70,000 years ago likely in Arabia Africa and is the mother mt-DNA haplogroup from which all present-day Europeans come. This group emerged in Africa and is still found in extremely low concentrations throughout the whole of Europe and Asia. Subgroups arose during the last Ice Age when they there were still hunter-gatherers.
N1a this is in the early European Neolithic farmers, 7800 ybp in the Pannonian Basin the most common HG among 12 others.
N1a1 is the founder group of mt-Haplogroup I.
N1b2 was probably assimilated into the ancestors of the Ashkenazi in the north Mediterranean area.
N9a is found in east, southeast, and central Asia, and in two ancient Sarmatian burial sites.


From N arose the subgroups O, A, S, R, I, W, X, Y, B, F, J, P, U, H, V, J, T and K.


Mt-Haplogroup C probably spread beyond its Ice Age refuge ‑ the area of Lake Baikal, the Yenisei River valley, and the Altai and Sayan mountains ‑ during the Mesolithic period. This haplogroup was among those carried by the potters of Lake Baikal about 7500 years ago.
C4a2 is found today in 40% of the Tubalars, an ethnic group in the Altai Republic in Russia. (24)


Mt-Haplogroup pre-HV, the precursor of the groups H and V has been extracted from a Cro-Magnon who lived 28.000 years ago in South-Italia.


Mt-Haplogroup H arose 35.000 years ago in central Asia and, with a 40% rate of occurrence, is the major mt-haplogroup in Europe today. It is noteworthy that the rate of occurrence in archaeological European DNA from 7,500 years ago is only half and, in Mesolithic material, hardly any at all. (25)
The current diversity appears to have originated during the mid-Neolithic, about 6.000 years ago, with later contributions from Iberia about 5.000 years ago.
H1 is highest among the Norwegians at 30% , with descending rates from there.
H2 is found in low concentrations on Sardinia and also in the Caucasus. It seems to accompany Y-DNA: G2a.
H3 is found at a rate of 10-12% in Portugal, northern Spain, and Sardinia, and at a rate of 6% in Ireland, Norway and Hungary.
H5 and H7 are found in the Caucasus and in low concentrations along the Mediterranean, in Anatolia along the Danube as far as the Alps. It possibly accompanies Neolithic Y-DNA: E1b1b, R1b1b2, J2 and T,
H13 has the same distribution as H2.


Mt-Haplogroup I arose about 20.000 years ago in the Near East or the Caucasus and dispersed in waves. One wave went to northern Europe, primarily Norway and Finland; another wave went to Pakistan and north-western India. It is still present in the Ukraine around the Caspian Sea, and in Anatolia and Greece. It seems to be connected with Proto-Indo-European culture, consequently accompanying Y-DNA R in particular R1a. but nothing is certain. Some think it may have been one of the foundation Mt-haplogroups of Europe which was later driven north and to other remote places. To date, Haplogroup I has not been found in samples taken from ancient European Palaeolithic, Neolithic, and Mesolithic grave sites, however it has been noted with significant frequency in more recent historic grave sites in Scandinavia. Its later dispersion would then be associated with the Vikings. The Croatian island of Krk is a "hotspot".


Mt-Haplogroup J is also an old haplogroup which arose 45.000 years ago in central Asia. It is thought to have come to Europe with Neolithic agriculture. Today it is commonly found in central Asia and north of the Caucasus. It seems to have some connection with Indo-European culture and the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b.
J1 is common in the Middle East, central Asia, the Ukraine, and in the German-speaking countries of Europe, and is affiliated with the Y-DNA haplogroup I1.
J1a arose 27.000 years ago in Asia Minor.
J2 is small and seen in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.


Mt-Haplogroup K arose out of U8, and is found throughout the whole of Europe and western Asia to India. The highest concentrations are in northeast and central Europe, Anatolia and southern Saudi Arabia. It is thought to have emerged about 16.000 years ago in Egypt or Anatolia. Despite its relatively young age, it has the most subgroups.
K1a is the largest clade. The fact that it is so common in Asia Minor suggests that it was still there before the Neolithic expansion into Europe. It was not found in Europe before the Neolithic entry, but afterwards suddenly reached 17%. Among present-day Europeans, this percentage has dropped and is about the same as in the present-day Levant.
K1a1b1a is found predominantly in Ashkenazic European Jews.
K1a4 is found in Europe and Anatolia, having spread in Europe together with mt-Haplogroups J and T and Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, J2 and T.
K1a9 is found predominantly in Ashkenazic European Jews.
K1a10 is European.
K1a12a archaeologic finds in west Anatolia. nowadays in Armenia, Iran, kuwait, Italia and in Druses.
K1b is European.
K1c is European.
K2 is European.
K2a2a1 is found predominantly in Ashkenazic European Jews.


Mt-Haplogroup R arose from N and from these arose after the late glacial Maximum in Europe 6 mt-Haplogroups: pre-HV, T, U and K and the eastern subgroups R1 through R31 in Asia, Australia and the Americas.


Mt-Haplogroup T originated about 15.000 years ago in Mesopotamia or north-eastern Africa. Today it is found in northern Europe, northern Africa, Central Asia, and Siberia, with foci in India and northwestern China.
T1 originated in the Fertile Crescent and/or the South Caucasus. It is strongly associated with the expansion of agriculture during the Neolithic period, and to a lesser extent also with the spread of the Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. .
T2 has been found in all major Neolithic cultures in Europe (Starcevo, LBK, Cucuteni-Trypillian, Cardium Pottery, Atlantic Megalithic...), but like haplogroup J it could have been present in Southeast Europe since the Mesolithic
T2b is found in three archaelogical samples from Barcin (Poland), a female, a G-L91 and a H2-M282. in an G-PF3170 individual from c. 7200 ybp from Halberstad (Germ), and in the G-L91* Bronze Age individual from Szöreg (Hungary), c. 3800 ybp.


Mt-Haplogroup U arose about 60.000 years ago from a woman in the mt-DNA Haplogroup R branch. This has been the only ancient DNA found in Europe dating from 30.000 to 5600 years ago. About 5000 years ago it was abruptly replaced by a very rich mt-DNA diversity of the Neolithic farmers. (26)
U* is the oldest, found in someone who had lived about 15,500 years ago at Hohle Fels, a cave in Baden-Würtemberg, Germany.
U1 is found in the Middle East.
U2 is obviously old European, exemplified by a 37,000 years old skeleton fond in Kostenki in Russia and an another 30.000-year-old found along the Don in Russia.
U3 and U4 is found around the Black Sea, mostly on the northeast side, in Central Asia around Tajikistan, and in eastern Europe.
U4 is found in late hunter-gatherers in Germany.
U5 arose round 40.000 years ago and is also a dominant clade of the Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe.
U5a in a 9000-year-old skeleton found in a cavern at Cheddar Gorge in Somerset Today it is found only in the far north among the Lapps, where it still has a 30% - 50% rate of occurrence.
U5a1 is dominant among the late hunter-gatherers in Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Russia. In Siberia it was found as early as 4.000 years ago in burial sites where it was mixed with east Asian mt-DNA C.
U5b1 in Iberia.
U5b1b arose 6,500 years ago and is compassing 48% of the Saami (Northeast Scandinavia), Yakut (Northeast Siberia), Berbers, (Algeria) and Fulbe (Senegal). It is striking that its populations live 9.000 miles apart. They belong to original hunter-gathering population of Europe and will be expelled to and over the edges of the continent by the successive waves of Neolithic newcomers.
U5b2a5 The clade of the Mesolithic skeletons, from Croatia and Korčula, 6000 BC.
U5b2c1 has been found in ancient mt-DNA from a mountain cave site in La Braña-Arintero in northern Spain, dating from 7.000 years ago.
U5b3 seems to have spread along the Mediterranean coast from a refuge on the Italian peninsula.
U6 in archaelogic remains of an individual, PM1, in Romania (Europe) is found U6*, cal 35.000 ybp. U6 is now found in Europe, Central Asia. and derived U6 haplotypes are now predominantly found in present-day North-Western Africa. European colonization brought different U6 lineages throughout the American continent leaving the specific sign of the colonizers origin.
U7 probably originated in Asia about 18.000 years ago. This haplogroup is found mainly in western and southern Asia. It is rare in Europe, but has been found among Sarmatians on the Russian Steppe dating back to 500 BCE. Low levels are found in parts of Sweden today. Two women who must have been of high status were buried with grandeur in the Oseberg Ship, discovered in a Viking burial mound in Norway. The elder may have been queen Åsa, the grandmother of king Harald Fairhair. the younger carried mt-DNA U7.
U8 a European clade from which mt-Haplogroup K originates.
U9 is found in Ethiopia, the Arabic peninsula, and Pakistan.


Mt-Haplogroup V presumably arose on the Iberian peninsula 15.000 years ago, during the last glacial period, among the hunter-gatherers who had withdrawn there with H1, H3 and U5 men. When the climate improved, they repopulated Europe. Today they constitute a large group, with the highest concentrations being found in northern Scandinavia among the Lapps (40%), and rates descending as one moves south, with the Netherlands at 8%.


Mt-Haplogroup W arose 18.000 years ago, with a spread similar to that of mt-Haplogroup I. Today it is found in the Ukraine, European Russia, the Baltic states and Finland, where it occurs in 3% to 5% of the population. In North Pakistan its rate of occurrence is 15%, and in North India, 10%, mostly among the higher castes and Indo-European speakers, and often paired with Y-DNA R1a and R1b.


Mt-Haplogroup X is more than 30.000 years old and is found in low concentrations in every population in Europe and northern Africa, and among the American Indians. The rates of occurrence are usually 1% to 2 % and rarely above 5%.
X1 is found only in northern Africa.
X2b is only found among American Indians. The Ojibwa, the third largest Indian nation in Amerika, living at the borders of the US and Canada in the general area of the great lakes have an rate of 25%, the other Indians have about 4%. (27)
X2a, X2c, X2d and X2e are found in Europe, West Siberia and Central Asia.
X2 has high concentrations around the Caucasus, descending to Central Asia and the Mediterranean.



Distribution of Y-DNA and Mt-DNA haplogroups in Eurasia circa 9000 to 7000 BCE.


What we are in the Netherlands

The pie charts below show the distribution of the ten largest Y-DNA haplogroups in the Netherlands at 410 men in 2008, and in the Oud Hertogdom Brabant Project in Flanders among 1057 men in 2013.

The differences between Belgium and the Netherlands are slightly distorted due to the participation of a small number of southern Dutchmen in the Belgian project. In the Belgian project, there was also an under-participation of French-speaking Walloons.

70% of all participants belonged to only four sub-haplogroups: R1b1b2a1 (R-U106), R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*), R1b1b2a2g (R-U152) and I1* (I-M253*). Significant micro-geographical differentiation within the sampling region was detected, mainly between the Dutch (Noord-Brabant) vs. the Flemish regions based on the differences in sub-haplogroup frequencies but not based on the Y-haplotype data within the main sub-haplogroups. A clear gradient was found with higher frequencies of R1b1b2 (R-M269) chromosomes in the northern vs. southern regions, mainly related to a similar trend in the frequency of R1b1b2a1 (R-U106). The genetic pattern faded away during the last centuries but was still detectable in 1950 according to the genealogical data. Nevertheless, the significant genetic differentiations and the clear gradient is not observable any longer in the contemporary population, most likely due to our higher mobility opportunities. (28)

ZvA Haplogroups percentages


ZvA Haplogroups percentages


The Differences

The differences between the two countries are quite clear in both haplogroup R1b and I.
Haplogroup R1b has its peak concentration in Great Britain, France and Belgium, with the rate of occurrence decreasing as one moves away from this center.
Haplogroup I has its peak concentration in Scandinavia, with the rate of occurrence decreasing as one moves away from there.
Haplogroup E is found in the Netherlands at almost half the rate of that found in Belgium. The peak for this haplogroup is found in in central Africa, with the concentrations decreasing as one moves north and east: the further from Africa, the lower the rate of occurrence.
Haplogroup J has its peak in Central Asia and the Mediterranean. In the Netherlands, these people could be descendants of Romans or Jews.
Haplogroup G has an approximately 10% higher concentration in the southern part of the Netherlands than in the northern part, being 4.1% in the south and 3.7% in the north.


New Culture ‑ New Genes
Mesolithic DNA

The oldest archaeologicafound Y-DNA is C-M130* It is found in a 37,000 years old skeleton in Kostenki on the Middle Don River in Russia. now still in Australia.

From an European hunter-gatherer, who died 7000 years ago in La Brañaa, in Spain, could also ample DNA be determined: mt-DNA, autosomal and Y-DNA.
This man was C1a2-V20 and this clade exists still in Europe, although it is nowadays rather rare. He had a very dark skin and blue eyes
C-V20, the pre-agriculture European group, had a presence also in Turkey at a very early date in the area where agriculture first developed. It is dated to 15,000 years BP (29)


Curiously, it now seems that both Europe and India were (in part) inhabited by brown people and became lighter by a process of admixture + selection. The process went "all the way" in Europe, but a cline of pigmentation was sustained in India. (30)

Neolithic DNA

An abrupt shift is 7200 years ago (before present, ybp) with the arrival of the first Neolithic farmers. This is found in Germany and Hungary, With their dominant haplogroup G2a and its subgroups G2a2b and G2a2b. The oldest European mummy, which was found in a glacier in Tyrol in the Ötzenthal and lived there 5300 years ago had G2a2a1b1a1-FGC5672 and mt-DNA haplogroup K1. A family from Thuringia in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, still has the same Y-DNA clades.

Bronze Age DNA

Around 6,800 ybp. We see at the beginning of the Bronze Age another shift. In a short period Haplogroup G is largely supplanted by a population of highly successful metalworkers and horse breeders. They have the Y-DNA haplogroup R. The northern branch R1a, the southern R1b

They came from the Yamna culture in Southern Russia. R1a brought the Corded ware or Battle axe culture which lasted from 5000 to 4300 ybp. This new population spoke the Proto-Germanic language. The question is whether there has been genocide or displacement.

It appears that half of the current European population are descendants of a single man, a king of this people with Y-DNA at the beginning of haplogroup R.

Iron Age DNA

About 4.000 ybp, at the beginning of the Iron Age, a change in mt-DNA occurred in Europe. This was coincidental and was probably related to the beginning of the dry era in the Middle East, following the long wet period on the Arab peninsula which had lasted from 8,500 to 4,500 years ago.

Roman Time

A multitude of all Y-DNA clades happens, There is increasing prosperity throughout Europe concomitant with increased mobility of all kinds of people.


The dramatic Y-DNA changes in the Neolithic

In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mt-DNA, we see a strong second bottleneck in the Y-chromosome lines in the last 10,000 years. The assumption is that this problem is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males. We think of social stratification together with polygamy. The first was the out-of-Africa bottleneck in the Eurasian founder haplogroups in the narrow time interval at 47 to 52 kya.

The Y chromosome plot suggested a reduction at around 4000 to 8000 years, when the female number is up to 17-fold higher than the male Number. (31)

Variation of Y chromosome effective population size-c

The dramatic events in the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age.
From: Monika Karmin, e.a., A recent bottleneck ..., Gen. Res. March 13, 2015.


Replacement of mt-DNA
during each immigration wave of the Neolithic period

To date, new DNA from four consecutive Neolithic cultures in Europe has been analysed:
Cardium Pottery, flourished about 8500 to 7500 years ago in southwest France and Spain;
De Starčevo culture flourished about 8200 to 7200 years ago around present Hungary and the Balkans. (32)
Linearbandkeramik (LBK, or Linear Pottery Culture), flourished about 7500 to 6500 years ago in Germany, in the Netherlands in South-Limburg and in Belgium in the Haspengouw.
In the Starveco and LBK culture, you see the haplotypes are a mix of some kind of G2a-P15 L30- (almost certainly G2a2a-PF3147, including G-L91), and one or more kind of G2a2b-L30 haplotypes may have included G-L497 and G-L13 what is now common in that region. Of the I2a1b-M423 most retreated to the North, some joined;
Rössen Culture (RSC) flourished about 6400 to 6250 years ago. Also found are: H5, HV0, U5, and K. (33)
Bell Beaker culture (German: Glockenbecher-Kultur) flourished about 4850 to 4140 years ago in Europe and England.
Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; Strijdhamer cultuur ) began 4500 BP, en populated North Eurasia. (34)

Each wave of immigration brought new people, a new culture and new genes. The immigrants did not integrate, but displaced the indigenous population. With each immigration wave came a new culture, and also entered new DNA, replacing the existing. Sometimes the old hunter-gatherer DNA partially returned. .

timeline mt-DNA

MtDNA Timelines
Cave: The time scale shown is in radio carbon calibrated years before the onset of the current era.
BC is Before Christ so add 2000 years to the time to the present day.



We see in the population history of Europe following successive populations: (35)


1. Neanderthals.
2. Cro-Magnon Hunter-gatherers
3. Postgacial Hunter-gatherers
4. Agrarians.
5. Metallurgists.

Starting time

circa 200.000 years ago
circa 50.000 years ago
circa 14.000 years ago
circa 8.000 years ago
circa 4.800 years ago

End time

circa 44.000 ybp
circa 14.000 ybp
a large part to the present
a small part to the present
forms the majority now.


Autosomal DNA (Au-DNA) in a Maastrichtian

In this Maastrichtian are present the genes of all the peoples of the European prehistory.
Remarkable is the large amount of, what is called here, Caucasian DNA.

earliest agrarians
Central Asians
the rest


Etnische herkomst B. Marres, Bron: GedMatch


Recent replacement of the Y-DNA in Cuba

A good example of the displacement of native genes by a new set shows the genographic composition of the Caribbean island of Cuba. The island has been inhabited for 7,000 years. In 1513 it became a Spanish colony. At that time the Island had about 110,000 inhabitants. Now there are more than eleven million. The newcomers were Spanish but also many Africans, who came as slaves into the country.

In 2012 an admixture analysis is made of a group of 1019 non-selective chosen people. To do this, a mixture of autosomal, Y-DNA, and mt-DNA haplogroup diagnostic markers is used. They found that the original Y-DNA haplogroups have almost entirely disappeared. for nearly 99½. Of mt-DNA haplogroups disappeared two thirds.

In the imported population of black slaves this process occurred also, but to a much lesser extent. Their Y-DNA is still half their mt-DNA. (36)

The conclusion that can be drawn is that at a relatively peaceful domination the initial male DNA almost completely disappears, but the female DNA to a large extent remains. When the latter disappears there will have been an extermination.

Cuba DNA


26 %
39 %
35 %

Autosomal DNA
72 %
20 %
8 %.

81,8 %
17,7 %
0,5 %

Example: This study has a significance that goes far beyond this island alone. Dominant new populations, anywhere in the world and in all times, will have bred with the women of conquered peoples. Of the subject men only a small part could have been able to maintain. Small Y-DNA haplogroups may be traces of an initial population. The small clades of Haplogroup G may be remnants of some ancient overrun native populations.


Searching for our anthropological background with Great DNA Projects

With the aid of data in large databases, one can discover the countries in which a particular haplogroup (or better, a subgroup) figures. As more tests are done, one will be able to look more deeply into our background. It is already becoming increasingly clear where certain subgroups originated and which peoples are characterized by each: Celts, Frisians, Franks, Burgundians, Saxons, Vikings, Vandals, Alans, Huns, Lombards, etc.

FTDNA ‑ the Big Y project

The Big Y test of FTDNA sequences a much larger part of the Y chromosome than done previously by either the standard Y marker (STR) testing, or the Geno 2.0 chip. The first results are now known.

Full Genomes Sequencing

The Full Genomes Sequencing is a high-coverage test, which basically tests all testable chromosome locations, perhaps 25 million in total.
This test finds a new SNP in every third to five generation, 100 to 150 years. This means it can determine relationships quite accurately in the short space of time between child and great grandfather, and so exact determine the moment that the different branches in families split up. This applies to the last centuries and also to thousands of years back. before family names were used.


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- YFull.com/tree.
- Nature Communication, A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages,
  Marta D., Costa e.a., Published 8 October 2013.
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  Association of Achaeologists, session: The bioarchaeology of the Neolithic Carpathian Basin, Pilzen Czechia,
  6 september 2013.
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- Chang, Hua'an, The Eastward Migration of Sauromatians, Taipei China 2011, revised edition in preparation.
  Annals of Human Genetics, 74: 539-546. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.
- Gaius Julius Caesar, Commentarii the Bello Gallico, Rome 51 vc.
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  Agrargeschichte, Vom Neolithikum bis zur Schwelle des Industriezeitalters
, 1979.
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   Jockenhhöve / Bender / Capelle, Deutc Agrargeschichte, Vor- und Frühgeschichte, 1996.
- Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys - The peopling of Europe , London 2013.
- Paul Mellars, The Upper Palaeolithic Revolution - Steven J. Mithen, The Mesolithic Age - Alasdair Whittle,
  The first Farmers
in Barry Cunlife The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe.
- Fernando L. Méndez et al., An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the
  Y  Human Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree
. The Am. J.H. Genetics, Vol.92, Iss. 3, 454-459, 28 February 2013
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- Alois Seidle, Deutc Agrageschichte, Frankfurt am Main, 2006.

Writer: E.C.W.L. (Boed) Marres, Amsterdam