Neolothic expansion routes

The spread of the European Neolithic

G - PF3147

reconstruction of a man found in a glacier the Alps, Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter.

The G ice mummy


HOME G-M201 G-FGC6669


G2a-P15 split somewhere in Southwest Asia round 17.800 years ago, in the late Mesolithic, in Southwest Asia in G2a1-Z5652 and G2a2-L1259.


G2a2 split round 16.800 years ago in the Fertile Crescent in G2a2a-PF3147 and G2a2b-l30, where the two developed the Neolithic agrarian culture.

Together they count for round 5% of the European G. G-L30 is ten times more numerous than G-PF3147.

In Çatalhöyük in South Anatolia, is found the oldest archaelogical find of G-PF3147, this was G2a2a1a3a-BY133179, dated about 6.730 ybc, so 8.730 years old. Çatalhöyük was first settled around 7100 BCE and there lived more than 10,000 people. (1)


Excavations in Çatalhöyük, Turkey (2)


The next oldest archaelogical comes from at Tepecik Ciftlik. This was a G2a2a2-Z36520 dated to 6635-6475 cal BCE.

A spreadsheet with All archaeological G you wil find at: Ancient G-M201s with sequencing.

Ancient Gs


Hasan dagi

Mount Hasan where the G-PF3147 people of Tepecik-Çiftlik got their obsidian


Leaving the Region

It has been suggested that leaving the settlements in Anatolia was the result of a climate change that had the multiple negative consequences. First, there was global warming after the last ice age that led to a significant rise in sea level, pushing coastal inhabitants inland. This was exacerbated by the associated breakthrough of the Bosphorus, which greatly increased the level of the Black Sea, where many coastal inhabitants were also driven inland.

There was also the the Misox oscillation. For three centuries the region became hotter and drier. Agriculture and livestock declined and as a result the yields of agriculture decreased.

The G population left the region, the G-PF3147 people mainly went westward to Europe and also to Egypt, Libya and probably already then to Morocco. And they took with them seed and their livestock.


The spread of the Neolithic population across Europe went along two different ways.

The Migration to Europe

The spread of the Neolithic population across Europe went along two different ways. The continentinal group with the Linear Band Culture (LBK) and de maritime group with Cardial Ware culture.

The Maritime group

The Maritime group went from the Aegean maritime region along the coasts of Anatolia and the Levant to Cyprus and Crete. Their pottery is decorated with simple geometric motifs with impressions of various spatulas. It is called Impresso in the Aegean region and in the Levant. In Corfu there came a variation in their pottery, which is called Impressa. It proceeded to dominate.

From the west coast of the Balkans, they crossed in 8,200 ybp to Italy. In this phase, their pottery became more diverse and decorated with more complex motifs exclusively applied with the cockle shell, Cardium edule. This is what we call Cardium culture. The expansion continued unabated and thus, approximately 7,500 ybp Portugal was reached via the Spanish coasts

There was a leap frogging growth of clusters of residential areas in the Mediterranean coastal plains. Between 7,500 and 7,200 ybp, farmers and hunters lived side by side: The farmers in the plains, the hunters around it in the hills. The hunter's and fishermen's food is half from the sea, that of the farmers is entirely from the built-up land.

From Corfu they spread in about seven centuries over a distance of about 4000 km (measured along the coast) at an average speed of 5 km per year or 150 km per generation. They not only colonized the coasts and islands, such as Corsica and Sardinia, but also went inland as far as the Italian Alps.

Hoguette, Normandie 5000-4500 Néolithique Ancien

Hoguette culture, 7.000-6.500 ybp, (3)

A group went north in France along the Rhône and the Loire to the French Atlantic coast.
In Normandy lies the first identified find spot La Hoguette of their culture but the majority of sites of this grouping are found along the upper Rhine and Neckar, with outliers for instance in the Weser mountains, in the Netherlands, and in their presumable track along the Rhône corridor.
They meet the continental LBK branch in the Hesbaye. Both groups may have arrived at nearly the same time. (4)

They arrived in England about 6000 years ago. It is shown that the British Neolithic people derived much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers who originally followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal and likely entered Britain from north-western mainland Europe. (5)

The Continental group

The Continental group went through Macedonia to Serbia and through the valley of the Morava downstream to The Danube and thence through the Danube Valley to Hungary. On the Hungarian lowland, this culture came 8000 years ago.

They followed the Danube and came in Germany. An ancient skeleton dated about 7000 years old, G2a2a1-PF3170 and negative for subgroups is found in a man buried in Halberstadt, Germany.


They continued through the Rhine Valley to the Lössgronden of Westphalia and the Southern Netherlands, along Maas and Jeker.

In South Limburg, the Hesbaye and Condroz, she were flourishing from 7,300 years ybp. Here they meet the Hoguettiens. Through Lorraine, a branch went along the basin of Paris to the Channel and Hainaut. (6)

The culture of these Early Neolithic Farmers is characterized by the cultivation of wheat and barley, and the particular shape of pottery with the characteristic decorations, called the Linear Band ceramic Culture, LBK. They brought with them their cattle, sheep and goats from the Middle East to their new living places. The analysis of the clothing, Alpine Ice mummi Ötzi shows this beautifully. (7)

British Neolithic farmers were genetically similar to contemporary populations in continental Europe and in particular to Neolithic Iberians, inhabitants of the east coast of Spain, suggesting that a portion of the farmer ancestry in Britain came from the Mediterranean rather than the Danubian route of farming expansion. (8)

With stone chisels and axes with a horizontal blade, the LBK farmers cut down parts of the forest to produce their fields. Here the first wheats as emmer and einkorn was cultivated, and the oilseeds linseed and poppy seeds. This happened especially on the Loess soils, but large parts of the Loess areas in Belgium and South Limburg were deprived of LBK habitation, the northern French area had no occupancy at all during the LBK.

Through exchange within a wide network, farmers knew to obtain raw materials from distant regions, such as hematite, an iron oxide that they used to polish pottery and for the red color, and the hard black amphibolite from which they made adzes.


Reconstruction of a LBK village on the Cannerberg at Maastricht.

The LBK started in Limburg around 7325 ybp (5,350 BC) and did not last longer than 230 years. Before the year 7,000 ybp it was already over. (9) In a short time the society had changed completely. Settlements arose in the form of several hamlets from three to five houses. These houses had a wooden frame with wattle walls covered with loess, such as in Caberg at Maastricht. The dead were buried in joint cemeteries, some of them were burned others unburned, and they lied close to each other, with gifts in their grave.

There was a rapid population growth with the farmers, but with the hunter collectors this is not observed. For Germany a population growth has been calculated from 8000 people at the beginning to 250,000 at the end of the LBK, a growth of 25% per generation. In South Limburg lived in the heyday up to 2000 people. This is as much as the mesolitic population of the whole of the Netherlands.

From 7,000 ybp the pottery has different shapes. 1. The famous LBK pottery is quite soft and has open bowls with the typical zigzag straps. 2. The La Hoguette pottery, named after the first location in Normandy, is found across the Rhine and also in our country at Kessel and Sweikhuizen; It is harder and egg-shaped and has a pointed bottom. Until the end, these two cultures flourished side by side. 3. The Limburg pottery group. This can be subdivided into a Rhine-Meuse group and a Seine-Scheldt group and is located as well in the LBK as is La Hoguette area. This pottery are features of the Southern French and Eastern Spanish pottery, a West-Mediterranean background is assumed. (10)

Lineaire_Bandkeramiek_aardewerk_uit Limburg,_Rijksmuseum_van Oudheden,_Leiden

Linear Band Ceramic pottery from Limburg, the National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, Netherlands

The late stages of the Tire Ceramics are characterized in particular in the west by increasing internal violence, most likely between related groups. It seems that robberies developed into a real plague and ultimately led to a disruption of the society through women's robbery, loss of lives, disturbance of harvests or loss of livestock

In the Haspengouw and South Limburg the settlements at the end became smaller and then broke down altogether shortly after 7,000 ybp. Then followed a short gap where the old fields were overgrown. It is unclear where the people stayed thereafter.

There is no idea about the causes. The society became divided into a number of separate cultural areas, each with their own pottery style, as well as own innovations, such as in the form of axles and housing constructions.

Based on the rapid and abrupt changes has been suggested that there was a crisis by internal causes such as soil depletion together with rapid population growth. An argument against this is that the loess soils are very fertile. Due to population growth territorial conflicts may have been a cause. There may have been external causes, for example a serious large-scale epidemic. Or a combination of these.

The agricultural tradition and the wide exchange network for specific commodities was restored not long after the loss of the LBK by farmers of the Rössen culture, 6,500 to 6,000 ybp such as in Maastricht to Randwijk. The Rössen vessels are characteristically decorated with double incisions "goat's foot incision".

They are best known for their Breitkeile, massive pole axes of stone, which apparently formed a popular export item. They are found in Southern Germany, far beyond Limburg.

This was followed by the Michelsberg culture, 6,400 to 5,500 ybp. It is a collective name of a large number of related communities, known by their Funnel beakers.

Kugelbecher der Rössener Kultur aus Hüde, Niedersachsen

Kugelbecher der Rössener Kultur (11)

Tulpenbecher, Michelsberger Kultur


They lived in the area from southern Scandinavia in the north, the Netherlands to the west, the Danube in the south. In the southeast there was partly an overlap with Lengyel culture. They are the Hunebed builders of Drenthe in the Netherlands.

Their residences usually lie on hilltops and have the impression to have been fortified settlements, indicating restless times.

Along the Meuse are found hundreds of sites of their pottery and flint remains. Their residences have been simple because we hardly find relics, but they left the first still visible traces in the Limburg landscape in the form of flint mines, such as in Rijckholt-St Geertruid and Valkenburg.

The gray flint blocks were collected to a depth of 12 meters from the limestone. With deer horns and flint hoes, operators dug an extensive system of deep mine shafts.

New Peoples, New Ideas, 4200 - 3000 BC Streams of Neolithisation in Western Europe

The letter M on the left image indicates the oldest place of residence of the Marres family. This is an edited image from Barry Cunliffe, Britain begins, 2013.

Influences from the Impressed Ware groups of southern France may have filtered northwards to contribute to the Limburg and La Hoguette pottery styles. For a while, late Mesolitic groups maintaned their own life in southern Brittanny. (12)


Constructions of stone tombs of large stones, megaliths appeared in Europe around 6,800 years ago in the Michelsberger or in the Funnelbeaker culture period. This new culture spread shortly thereafter in three waves from 6,800 to 6,200 years ago from Central Europe to northwestern France and down the Atlantic coast into the Mediterranean, Spain and to Great Britain. (13)


Megalithic burials from the end of the Neolithic have been found in Oberbipp and Aesch, Switserland.

Dolmen Oberbipp, foto Denise Krieg

Dolmen Oberbipp, foto Denise Krieg

In a dolmen burial in Oberbipp six individuals were G2a2a1a2-L91. Two of them had also G2a2a1a2a-FGC7739 and three were pre-G2a2a1a2a1a-L166*. They are dated between 5300 and 4900 ybp.
In a dolmen in Aesch fourteen individuals were found with G2a. They are dated between 5100 and 4800 ybp. Ten were pre-G2a2a1a2a1a-L166*. (14)


The dolmens in the Caucasus in Russia are from at least 5250 ybp, placing them roughly in line with tail end of the Neolithic in the western Caucasus and the beginning of the Proto-Colchian culture in the Lowlands. (14a)

In a dolmen in the Western Caucasus is found ancient G sample, not sure it was in this dolmen, Dlinnaya I 6272, FGC77440+, a SNP in subgroup G2a2a2a-Z45970. In dolmens of the Western Caucasus bronze knives had been found which have closest analogies in the Mediterranean. (14b)

Dolmen in the Western Caucasus-5

Dolmen in the Western Caucasus


The oldest Dutch dolmen (in Dutch Hunebed) dates back 4,300 years ago.

Dutch Hunebed

A Dutch Hunebed

Dutch Hunebed

Under a Dutch Hunebed


In England, these Burial Chambers were built for the first time a thousand years later. Sometimes they are arranged in circles; in Wales they are called Cromlech, in England Stone circle and Henge. If they occur in groups, the British call them a Cairn.

Selina Brace c.s. found overwhelming support for agriculture being introduced to Britain by incoming continental farmers, with small and genetic affinities with Iberian Neolithic individuals indicating that British Neolithic people were mostly descended from Aegean farmers who followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal. (15)


G2a2a1a3-FGC34725 (FGC34625), is in Archaeological finds from Çatalhöyük, Anatolia, 6825-6635 ybp, in Cueva de los Murciélagos near Cordoba in Castilia, Spain, 7245-7025 ybp, in Malta, 4530–4400 BP and in Portugal, 3500-2000 ybp and G2a2a1a3a-BY133179 in sixteen graves in twelve different locations in Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Malta, Spain and Portugal, dating from 8730 to 4750 ybp.


It is striking that their settlements showed an increase in defensive measures. Notable are the many finds of skeletons that are buried very disorderly, so it seems that that these many people died a violent death. This indicates a violent end of this era. (16)


The Chalcolithic period or Copper Age

The Carpathians, in the Northern Balkans, are rich in copper. The first copper ore was mined in where now is Serbia and Hungary from 7,400 to 5,800 ybp. The first copper weapons, tools and jewelry were made there.

A century later the first gold was melted and processed in present Bulgaria. This was traded over long distances en is found in the former pastoralist societies in the southern Russian steppe and in the cultural flourishing Asia Minor.


Y-DNA in the time of the LBK Culture in Europe

The Mesolithic European Haplogroups are C, F and I. Some I1, most with haplogroup I1a1-P37, and also I2 lineages of hunter-gatherers assimilated with the Near Eastern farmers who had made their way into Europe across the Balkans and the Mediterranean shores.

In the burial grounds in Starvečo and the Hungarian Plane is found the first European G2a with the subgroups G2a2a-PF3147, including G-L91 and G2a2b-L30. Two-thirds had a G clade. (17)

Neolithic individuals from Northwest Anatolia from about 8300 years ago show genetically a homogeneous society with a strong resemblance to the first farmers in Europe. They have the same high percentage G2a that in composition is similar to that of the first European farmers, they have a strong genetic (autosomal) relationship. This indicates the now accepted origin of the first European farmers from this area.

The European farmers have mixtures with the indigenous European hunter-gatherers. Such a picture we see also in the Anatolians.


Bronze Age

The Yamnaya Culture on the South Russian Steppes

The steppes of South Russia were inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a 24,000-year-old Siberian. But the step dwellers of that time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry, although of other origin as in the West.

There flourished during 5,600 and 4,300 ybp years ago the Yamnaya Culture. They are said to be the proto Indo-Europeans. They are cattle-breeding nomads and the first users of wheeled vehicles pulled by horses. They buried their dead in pits, sometimes covered with mounds, that shows their social status. They hardened their copper to bronze. They started to melt iron from the rocks forming it into utensils and weapons.


A new population in Europe
with new Y-DNA

A new population comes round 4,800 ybp from their region. Their pottery is called the Corded Ware culture (English) or schnurkeramischen Kultur (German). They are also called the Battle Axe People. They conquer in short time whole of Europe. These people carried distinct genetic markers that allow their movements and genetic influence, present in essentially all modern-day Europeans, to be traced.

The dominant Y-DNA haplogroup G2a2a-PF3147, present in the Neolithic agrarians, is in the beginning of the Iron Age largely replaced by R1a, R1b and some G2a2b subclades, mostly G2a2b2a1-L140. This concerns the Y-DNA of the men. In the women, the composition of the different mtDNA haplogroups had hardly changed. They are clearly included in their midst. (18).

It could have been as recorded in Homer's book Odyssey, where the hero Odysseus tells of his exploits with the Kikones.

    Odyssey book 9

39  The wind drove us as we left Troy into the land of the Kikones,
40  Ismaros, where I destroyed the city and had killed the men.
41  Woman and rich possessions we took from there
42  Which we divided up, so that each man got his equal share.

But also the earliest indications of the plague in Europe coincide with the arrival of steppe ancestry in the European populations. This supports the concept that the plague spread along with the large-scale migration of steppe nomads. The threat of the plague may have been one of the causes for the increased mobility during the late Neolithic-early Bronze Age period. In other words, the steppe people could have been moving to get away from the plague. Furthermore, the introduction of the disease in Europe could have played a role in the genetic turnover of European populations. The steppe people, may have had a different level of immunity. (19)

Survivors of the ancient G population persisted in the Alps, and around the Mediterranean and especially in Sardinia. The old original European population of hunter-gatherers with haplogroup I decreases less in number and merged with the newcomers.


Survivors or part of the new population?

In an early medieval grave in Ergoldingen in Bavaria (Germany), dated round 670 AD, six men were buried together. Apparent from the dual DYS19 value was definitely at least one of them G2a2a-PF3147.
They were buried with their swords, spears, and shields, so they were probably knights.

  Marker    393    19   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389 I   392   389 II   458   459a   459b   447   437   448   449   GATA H4   438 
  DYS value warrior 1   14  14-15        11 13 11 12 11 29 16 9 9 23 16       10
  DYS value warrior 2   13   10 15 15 11 12   12 11 29 19 9 9     22 27 12 11

The markers of the 7th century Bavarian cavalrymen. (20)


Tree survey


G2a2a – PF3147

The age of this group is 16,000 years old.

He divides into five subgroups

splitsing in tweeën
G2a2a1 - PF3148

Formed 12,700 years ago.

He divides into two subgroups:

G2a2a1a - PF3177

Formed 11,500 years ago.

He divides into four subgroups:
Following below

G2a2a1b - FGC34434

formed 11900 ybp, TMRCA 11900 ybp.

FGC34436    FGC34387

Arch. find Praha,   Khan, Pakistan
  Cze, 6350 ybp.

Y85489   SK1120

G2a2a2 - Z36520

Formed 12,700 years ago.

Divides into two subgroups.

G2a2a2a - Z45970

Divides ca. 12,000 years ago
into two subgroups.

splitsing in drie
Z31724     Z45965     BY49593

Uzbeks      Algerians       .......

G2a2a2b - Z36525

Divides ca. 12,000 years ago
into three subgroups.

splitsing in drie
Z36522     Z45667     Z45700

French  Ukrainians  Romanians 



It divides into
several subgroups:

See page:


This divides into
three subgroups:

See below:

FGC34625 - FGC34725

Archaeological finds in Anatolia, and Iberia ca. 7245-76825 ybp.

Nowadays in Georgia
and in England.





This clade arose about 11,000 years ago. In Greece archaelogic finds are in Kleitos dated 6,100 years ago and in Bulgaria 4,759 years ago.

L91 clades spread round the Mediterranean region into North Africa, Egypt (now 4%), Libya, Tunisia, the Northern Berbers of Morocco, the Royal family of Morocco, the Alouï, assumed to be descended from Ali ibn Talib, who was the son-in-law and nephew of the prophet Mohammed. Several sultanates, including the current sultans of Perlis in Malaysia, are branches of this lineage. These clade is now also found among the Bakhthiari nomads of Iran and, in Northern India, an Uyghur from China, in Czechia it is 3%. Some in the Netherlands, Germany and in Alsace-Lorraine,

He divides into two subgroups:

splitsing in drie

Z6488, FGC7739, PF3237

formed 11800 ybp, TMRCA 11800 ybp

Archaeological finds in Turkey, 8,300 ybp, Bulgaria 7.900 ybp, Croatia4.700 ybp, and Hungary 3,700 ybp (Bell Beaker culture).

Today in an Iranians.

divides in two



Divides in two
TMRCA 7000 years ago.







PF3239, Z6490


divides in two



Formed 8.800 years ago

Archaeological finds from 8,300 BP in Barcin, Turkey
Now in Germany, Sardinia, Tunisia, France, Georgia.

Divides in:


Formed 7.000 years ago, brought Europe probably the Bell Beaker culture.
Now in Bulgaria, Germany, Greece , on Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica.
and in the Pundjab of Pakistan.


Ötzi - FGC5672*

divides in two


Formed 5000 years ago,
Sardinians, Germans.

from him



from him
Z31438  and  Z6179




divides in two


from him


from him
Z6819 · Z6190 · Z6038 · PF6836

Writer: E.C.W.L. (Boed) Marres, Amsterdam

- Last modification: